Inspired living

Cancer - cervical

Risk factors: most cervical cancers are associated with the human papilloma virus (HPV), which is sexually transmitted.

Other risk factors: multiple pregnancies (>5), sexual intercourse before age 18, unprotected sex, sexually transmitted infections, early childbearing, multiple sexual partners, infertility, smoking and nutritional deficiencies.

Symptoms: do not usually appear until the cancer has progressed. Symptoms include bleeding between menstrual periods, bleeding after intercourse, unusual discharge, painful menstrual periods and heavy periods. It is important for women to have Pap smears regularly.